2021年11月19日下午1点，龙葵社区邀请到了Pastel Co-Founder联合创始人Anthony Georgiades，为大家分享AMA主题：Pastel协议上线Sense and Cascade
以下是本次 AMA 直播内容：
Anthony，welcome to the Sunrise dragon community. Can you introduce yourself and your team first?
Thank you for having me. My name is Anthony Georgiades. I am Co-Founder of Pastel Network as well as an investor for a deep-tech focused venture fund. I have been working with Jeff Emanuel on Pastel since 2018. He is the person who initially came up with this idea for a fully dedicated and purpose-built blockchain for the NFT Ecosystem. He saw the potential of doing rare art on the blockchain, which he first heard about with a now forgotten project called Rare Pepe that was built on top of the Bitcoin blockchain. Rare Pepe had a lot of problems though-- fees were way too high even then, and there were lots of aspects of the system that weren't decentralized, like not storing the image files in the chain and relying on a totally centralized website.
我很感谢能被邀请来参加此次的活动。我叫安东尼·乔治亚兹（Anthony Georgiades），是Pastel Network的联合创始人，也是一只专注深度技术的风险基金的投资者。自2018年以来，我一直与杰夫·伊曼纽尔(Jeff Emanuel)在Pastel项目上开展合作。他是最初提出为NFT生态建立了一个完全专用区块链的想法的人。他看到了在区块链上创作稀缺艺术的潜力，而首次促发他有这个想法的是由于一个建立在比特币区块链之上名为Rare Pepe的被遗忘项目。尽管在当时Rare Pepe项目也存在很多问题，如费用太高，项目系统在很多方面都没有实现去中心化，比如没有将图像文件存储在链中，以及依赖于一个完全中心化的网站。
He thought there was a much better way to do this, and so we started the process of designing and building a purpose-built blockchain just for rare NFTs. We chose to build on a rock solid technical foundation: Zcash, which is built on top of the Bitcoin code base, and then taking the Masternode code from the DASH project. We built on top of this a powerful and flexible system of "tickets" for registering and trading NFTs using special coin transactions. We added to that our own storage layer for storing the image files and a lot of other cool technology that we will tell you about today.
Additionally, Pastel is managed by world-class developers, cryptographers, and technologists, supported alongside an experienced and extensive network of marketers, influencers, and third-party agencies.
Next, please introduce Pastel to us
Pastel is the world’s preeminent protocol standard for NFT technology. Pastel also allows for the development of third-party applications to sit on top of its Network, enabling developers to enjoy the scalable registration features, storage processes, and security of the broader ecosystem. Lightweight protocols such as Sense - which was built to assess the relative rareness of a given NFT against near-duplicate metadata - and Cascade - which conducts permanent, distributed storage of underlying NFT data - can be integrated across any native L1 blockchains or L2 marketplaces.
The native platform living directly on top of the Pastel Network also gives creators a way to securely connect with fans and sell unique, limited edition digital assets – without the high fees or storage constraints of other crypto projects. By leveraging a purpose-built native blockchain, Pastel can deploy a number of key features such as Sense's deep-learning based near-duplicate detection system to ensure proven authenticity.
How does Pastel let the creator guarantee the value of his NFT?
Other NFT projects rely solely on the digital signature of the artist to ensure rareness. They calculate a hash of an image file - and that is it. So if someone tries to take another artist's image and just changes one pixel in the corner of the image, no one would notice, but the hash would be different. Therefore, we came up with a solution to this problem. Pastel adds additional concepts of rareness at the level of the underlying pixel patterns in the image itself using our robust image fingerprinting technology. To protect artists and collectors, we realized that we needed a way to detect duplicate images.
This is the most innovative aspect of the project, since we use 7 deep learning image recognition algorithms together with advanced statistics to detect dupes — even if they have been modified in all sorts of ways (like running any kind of photoshop filter on the image, or cropping, or flipping it, or changing contrast/colors, adding random noise, pixels, etc.)
And, if you are a believer in rareness, having the ability to confirm that a work is authentic will definitely help raise valuation.
We call this protocol, Sense. It is the first-of-its kind on the market, and I will discuss it in detail later.
What is Pastel's token, and what are the application scenarios for tokens?
PSL is the native utility token for the Pastel ecosystem. PSL has been designed to facilitate NFT transactions like minting or trading and to power staking, validation, and governance. Ultimately, PSL is required for the various applications and protocols that are built on top of the Pastel Network.
PSL empowers users of any kind to partake in the ecosystem. PSL can be obtained by network participants and stored, transferred, or transacted with other Pastel users in a permissionless peer-to-peer manner.
Token holders can stake their PSL and work to provide execution of operations, storage services, and network security by running Supernodes. Creators can issue rare digital assets and obtain perpetual royalties of up to 10% of all future sales of such NFTs. Third-party developers can design apps on top of the Pastel Network by integrating PSL seamlessly into their applications and, in turn, can charge users for services or design rewards systems - without ever having to worry about settlement specifications.
5. What are the biggest challenges facing the NFT market today?
First is the amount of NFT scams and frauds occurring every day.
NFTs are being sold at unbelievable prices - the biggest sales reaching millions or even tens of millions of dollars. Therefore, it is no surprise that malevolent users would try to disrupt the system to make a quick fortune.
Some of the biggest NFT frauds that have taken place this year include the recent Banksy Scam, in which fake Banksy NFTs were listed on OpenSea and selling for nearly $350,000, and an evolved Apes NFT scam, also on OpenSea, which led to about $2.7 million being extracted by the anonymous developer behind the hack. The latter was due to a wallet vulnerability for OpenSea users which left them vulnerable and exposed to attackers.
在今年发生的大型NFT欺诈案中，近期爆出的Banksy NFT骗局引人注目。假冒的Banksy NFT在OpenSea上上市，售价近35万美元。还有一起进阶版的Apes NFT骗局也是发生在OpenSea上，该骗局让案件背后的匿名开发商窃取了约270万美元。该骗局是由于OpenSea的用户钱包漏洞，这让用户的安全性受到威胁，并容易成为攻击者的目标。
These are not isolated incidents. In September, $3 million in Ether was stolen on the MISO token launchpad built on the SushiSwap platform. Earlier this year, valuable NFTs were stolen from Nifty Gateway collectors. While it’s the larger hacks that garner the most media coverage, there is also no shortage of smaller scams that are largely unreported. Clearly, malicious actors have found the NFT space to be lucrative, and they have been taking advantage of technological gaps that exist in the system while showing no signs of slowing down.
这些都不是孤立的事件。今年9月，SushiSwap 的 Launchpad 平台 MISO遭攻击，300万美元的以太币被盗。今年早些时候，NFT交易市场Nifty Gateway的数名用户的珍贵NFT被盗。虽然较大的黑客攻击获得了最多的媒体报道，但也不乏规模较小的骗局，而这些骗局基本上没有被报道。显然，恶意攻击者发现NFT市场有利可图，他们一直在利用系统中存在的技术差距进行恶意操作，而该领域存在的恶意攻击局面丝毫没有减缓的迹象。
What do these hacks mean for the ecosystem? We need to provide a safe environment for creators to list their digital assets, and for users to safely and securely buy and sell NFTs, if the industry is going to go even more mainstream. Sooner or later, nobody will be willing to purchase an NFT for hundreds of dollars–let alone millions–if they cannot be certain that their investment is the real deal.
However, we are solving this problem through our Near-Duplicate NFT Detection protocol, Sense.
Second is storage.
In the world of NFTs, the digital asset will often be stored in the cloud on a centralized server or as part of the IPFS Directory. This third-party provider may demand increased fees or require ongoing payments to maintain storage. There is also a lack of control over the asset in the long term, given levels of centralization. This leaves the creator highly vulnerable to the loss of data, and we have seen various rug-pulls or technical complications as a result. We are addressing this issue with our fully decentralized, permanent storage solution, Cascade.
About Pastel's Sense and Cascade protocal, can you give us a detailed introduction?
Sense is our Near-Duplicate NFT detection protocol powered by the Pastel Network. Sense assesses the relative rareness of a given NFT against near-duplicate metadata on networks like Ethereum and Solana and prevents scams or theft. It is a lightweight protocol that leverages computer vision and a number of deep learning models using Tensorflow with Keras Applications to transform any NFT into a representation of thousands of numbers - an NFT fingerprint. Fingerprints can be compared against public NFTs in existence by querying open networks of data.
Before Sense, creators and collectors carried the burden of verifying if the works they were collecting were, in fact, originals. Sense was developed with creators and collectors in mind - to make proving authenticity and identifying rareness simple for the user.
Cascade is our fully distributed, permanent storage protocol built for scalability, redundancy, and security. It is a lightweight protocol that leverages advanced fountain code algorithms and distributed systems to partition NFT data into a series of highly redundant chunks that are randomly distributed across nodes. There is no complex or centralized system for deciding which node is responsible for which file, no iteration through nodes to find one with the relevant data, and no complicated logic for handling re-allocation in the case of nodes entering and leaving the network.
Before Cascade, asset storage was inefficient and unreliable. The likelihood of data loss was high and the accessibility of the actual NFT was never certain. Cascade solves these challenges through permanent distributed storage of NFT data, on-chain. And all a user needs to do is register the NFT.
As an NFT collection platform, what makes Pastel unique?
We designed Pastel from the ground up with our target user in mind. Users can create a PastelID, which consists of a public and private key, to develop an identity on the blockchain. More importantly, the PastelID system ensures that creators and collectors can share their PastelID key on their website or various social media accounts - abstracting away the confusing string identifiers associated with pub/priv key pairs.
From user onboarding to navigating through the marketplace and trading NFTs, every aspect of the system was carefully designed to account for intuitive user-flow and understanding. In this manner, we open our doors to an entire world of users, creators, and adopters and makes It easy for non-crypto natives to use the platform - versus relying solely on abstract wallets like Metamask.
Additionally, we are leveraging our Sense and Cascade protocols to provide even more benefits to Pastel’s users. As described above, we have quantified rareness and proven authenticity as well as created an on-chain permanent storage solution.
Now that the NFT market has grown tremendously, what are your thoughts on the prospects of the NFT market in the future?
The prospects for the future are truly great. The demand and utility of NFTs (not solely pertaining to digital art) is extremely high. NFTs will revolutionize identity verification, real estate, ticketing for sporting events and concerts, domain name ownership, and IP / patents. The applications for NFTs beyond digital art will change the world. However, that is not to say that digital art is the modern-day Renaissance. Digital art is driving the increase in the number of NFT platforms and marketplaces being launched. 6 months ago most of the world was skeptical that digital art could ever reach the upper echelons of the art world, but now digital art has completely revolutionized the way people look at art. While it is novel and niche, digital art signifies a changing of the guard, in some respects. Anyone, anywhere, can buy incredible digital art. It is no longer left to high society and the wealthy. This democratization has catalyzed the market into what it is today and has primed it for the future.
Additionally, I think consumer interest in the near future will lean heavily towards both Play to Earn Games and Celebrity collections. But, what is interesting is that both are already in the market and thriving. Various athletes, from Tom Brady to Tiger Woods, are dropping NFT collections. Dez Bryant, Dallas Cowboys Wide Receiver, launched his own NFT company, Personal Corner. Like Celebrities and Athletes, Blockchain/NFT games are also booming. Games, like The Sandbox, Axie Infinity, and Lost Relics are taking the gaming community by storm. Beyond that, use cases ranging from big data to real estate to credit markets, all the way to insurance and identity - any immutable, stale data can and will become an NFT. The next frontier has already begun, and I am very excited for what is next.
此外，我认为在不久的将来，消费者的兴趣将主要倾向于玩赚类游戏和名人收藏品。但是，有趣的是，这两类趋势都已形成市场并蓬勃发展。从汤姆·布雷迪(Tom Brady)到老虎·伍兹(Tiger Woods)，运动员们都在推出各自的NFT的收藏品。达拉斯牛仔队的边路接球手德兹·布莱恩特(Dez Bryant)创办了自己的NFT公司Personal Corner。与名人和运动员一样，区块链/NFT游戏也在蓬勃发展。The Sandbox, Axie Infinity和 Lost Relics等游戏正席卷游戏界。除此之外，从大数据到房地产再到信贷市场，一直到保险和身份识别，任何不可篡改的过时数据都可以并且也将成为NFT。下一个篇章已经打开，我对未来充满期待。
What everyone cares about is how does Pastel guarantee the security of the platform?
Our head developer has been working in the computer security industry for over 20 years, and has carefully reviewed every element of the system from a security standpoint.
We don't take anything for granted— we never assume that users or Supernode operators will act honestly. We assume that they can be malicious and try to attack or disrupt the network.
Also, we very intentionally decided to build our project on the rock solid foundation of Zcash, which is of course directly built on the Bitcoin core codebase.
Most of the Pastel Network system sits at a higher level of abstraction, and the low level aspects is done using the same time-tested blockchain code that powers Bitcoin.
We are also about to spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to hire the leading 3rd party security auditing firms to check everything.
What are Pastel's recent activities that can involve the community and users to join?
We are launching many community giveaways and campaigns to get users involved and learn more about Pastel. We also partnered with Project Galaxy, which is a permissionless NFT protocol that empowers communities with gamified loyalty systems and plug-and-play NFT modules. Through this partnership, we have launched an NFT giveaway campaign and are in the process of planning several more!
We believe that the community is the most important aspect of this project. If we can make Pastel accessible to everyone, then we have succeeded. To be a part of these campaigns and giveaways, be sure to follow us on our Telegram channel and WeChat groups!
Finally, talk to us about your views on the market and some expectations for Pastel’s future.
The market shows no signs of slowing down. However, there is definitely a bubble aspect to the current NFT craze. However, I think this is at the level of individual NFTs, not so much the platforms. I think we had a brief period where people without much artistic talent or social media following could quickly make NFTs and sell them for thousands of dollars.
Unsurprisingly, the market saw a flood of new NFT products, and prices plunged. However, for artists of great ability with a big following, it's quite different. Or if you are a celebrity or sports star making an NFT collectible, that's also very different.
So the bubble of untalented, no-name artists getting rich quick— that's over now, and that's a good thing for the space. But in terms of the combined market caps of all NFT platforms— I think that number will be much higher in 3 years than now, at least in BTC terms.
And hopefully Pastel will be the biggest of them all :)
以上便是本次 AMA 的所有内容，如果你还有任何其他疑惑和见解，欢迎加入我们的社群，同时感谢以下各大媒体们的大力支持。